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October 21, 2014

Improve your Vocabulary - 2

1. DEARTH : లోటు, కొరత 
Lack of something or not enough of being something.
Usage: There is a dearth of finance to carry out the project.

2. DEFICIENCY : ఏదైనా తక్కువ అని చెప్పడం
A state of not having something or not enough of something essential.
Usage: She has vitamin deficiency.

3. DROUGHT : వర్షాలు లేక ఏర్పడే పరిస్థితి.
A long period of time when there is little or no rain.
Usage: The prime minister visited the drought hit areas

4. DEPRIVATION : కనీస అవసరాలైన ఆహార, వస్త్ర, నివాస సదుపాయాల కొరత.
The fact of not having something that you need like food, money, home etc.,
Usage: Many people face deprivation in during war.

5. DRAIN OF RESOURCES : అందుబాటులో ఉన్న అన్ని వనరులు ఇప్పటికే ఉపయోగించడం.
To make something empty or dry by using.
Usage: The organization has drained all its financial resources.

6. DESTROY : ఓ వస్తువుని నాశనం చేయడం (లేదా) నాశనమైందని తెల్పడం.
To damage something so badly that it no longer exists.
Usage: The house was destroyed in the earthquake.

7. DEVASTATE : ఓ ప్రాంతం పూర్తిగా నాశనమైందని చెప్పడానికి, ఒకరి జీవితంలో చాలా కష్టం కలిగిందని చెప్పడానికి వాడే పదం.
To completely destroy a place or an area.
Usage: 
(i) The cyclone devastated the coastal areas.
(ii) Her life was devastated after her husband's death.

8. DISASTER : విపత్తు
An unexpected event which kills a lot of people and causes a lot of damage.
Usage: Many people lost their dear ones in the disaster.

9. DEMOLISH : ఓ కట్టడాన్ని/ సంస్థని ఉద్దేశపూర్వకంగా నిర్వీర్యం చేయడం.
To pull or knock down a building.
Usage: The MCH workers demolished the buildings.

10. EAT : తినడం.
Usage: He eats lot of chocolates.

11. EATERY : A restaurant or other place that serves food.
Usage:My uncle owned a restaurant; he took me to his eatery at least once a month.

12. END : ముగించడం.
To finish something.
Usage: He ended his speech with a proverb.

13. EXPIRE : గడువు ముగియడం.
To end the period of someone's service or the validity of an argument etc.,
Usage: His term will expire next month.

14. EXTINGUISH : మంటలు ఆరిపోవడం.
To end fire.
Usage: The fire fighters extinguished the fire.

15. EXTINCT : అంతరించడం.
To end the existence of something especially a species.
Usage: If we don't protect 'TIGERS'. They will soon become extinct.

16. EXHAUST : వనరులను పూర్తిగా వినియోగించడం.
To end resources by using them completely.
Usage: They have exhausted all the funds.

17. EVOLVE : పరిణామం చెందడం. (క్రమంగా క్లిష్టంగా మారడం)
To change gradually from a simple form to a complicated form.
Usage: Science has evolved in the last 10 years.

18. EBB : వస్తువు బలం లేదా పరిమాణం తగ్గడం.
To gradually decrease the strength or size of something.
Usage: The soldiers spirit began to ebb away when they lost the battle.

19. ELECT : ఓట్లు వేసి ఒక వ్యక్తిని ఒక బాధ్యత నిర్వర్తించడానికి ఎన్నుకోవడం.
To choose somebody to do a job by voting for them.
Usage: The people of the country elect the prime minister.

20. ESPOUSE : ఆలోచన, ప్రతిపాదన లేదా నమ్మకాన్ని ఎంచుకోవడం.
To choose and support a belief policy etc.
Usage: Gandhi espoused the notion of equality.

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1. EMBRACE: ఉత్సాహంతో ఒక ఆలోచన, ప్రతిపాదన లేదా నమ్మకాన్ని ఆమోదించడం.
To choose an idea, a proposed or a set of belief enthusiastically
Usage: The members embraced his idea unanimously.

2. ESCHEW: ఉద్దేశపూర్వకంగా కావాలని తప్పించుకోవడం.
To deliberately avoid something
Usage: He eschewed from meeting her.

3. EVADE: కలవకుండా, సంబంధాలు పెట్టుకోకుండా, పనులు చేయకుండా తప్పించుకోవడం.
To avoid meeting somebody / dealing with something / doing something that is legally and morally right
Usage: Raj managed to evade from the police for 18 years

4. ELUDE: ఒక వ్యక్తికి లేదా వస్తువుకు దూరంగా ఉండటం, తప్పించుకోవడం.
To avoid somebody or something
Usage: The thieves managed to elude the police.

5. EMPTY: లోపల ఏమీ లేకపోవడం.
With nothing inside
Usage: She put the things in an empty suitcase.

6. EXHAUSTED: శక్తి లేకపోవడం, అలసిపోవడం.
Person with no energy
Usage: The exhausted players returned to their rooms.

7. EXCISE: వస్తువుని పూర్తిగా తీసివేయడం.
To remove something completely
Usage: The chapter was excised from the History books.

8. ELIMINATE: వస్తువును కాని, వ్యక్తిని కాని తీసివేయడం.
To remove something or somebody
Usage: They have eliminated the problem.

9. EVICT: ప్రజల్ని వారి ఇంటి నుంచి బలవంతంగా గెంటివేయడం.
To remove somebody from the houses forcefully
Usage: They were evicted from their house.

10. EJECT: వ్యక్తిని ఒక ప్రదేశం నుంచి బలవంతంగా తరలించడం.
To remove somebody from a place forcefully
Usage: The mob was ejected from the auditorium.

11. EXTRACT: వస్తువుని లేదా పదార్థాన్ని ప్రక్రియ ద్వారా పొందడం లేదా తీయడం
To remove or obtain a substance from something through a process
Usage: The extracted gold from the mines

12. EXTRICATE: వ్యక్తిని లేదా వస్తువుని ఒక కష్టమైన పరిస్థితి నుంచి బయటపడేయడం.
To remove somebody or something from a difficult situation
Usage: The pilot managed to extricate all the passengers.

13. EXCAVATE : పురాతన శిథిలాలు లేదా వస్తువుల్ని తీయడానికి మట్టిని తవ్వడం.
To remove the mud to look for old buildings or objects buried in the ground.
Usage: The historians excavated the site.

14. EVACUATE: ప్రజల్ని ప్రమాదకర పరిస్థితి నుంచి సురక్షిత ప్రాంతాలకు తరలించడం.
To remove people from a dangerous situation and take them of a safe place
Usage: The police evacuated the mall after the bomb blast.

15. EMPTY: పాత్ర నుంచి వస్తువుని పూర్తిగా తీసివేయడం లేదా ఖాళీ చేయడం
To remove everything from the container
Usage: She emptied the water bottle.

16. EMPLOY: ఒకరి నైపుణ్యాన్ని లేదా ఒక పద్ధతిని సరిగా వాడటం.
To use skill or method for a particular purpose
Usage: The government has employed several methods to fight terrorism.

17. EXERT: అధికారాన్ని, పరపతిని వాడి ఇంకొకర్ని ప్రభావితం చేయడం.
To use power or influence to effect somebody or something
Usage: He exerted his authority to pass the bill.

18. EXERCISE: వినియోగించడం.
To use power skill or right to make something happen
Usage: We must exercise our right to vote.

19. ENTICE: ఆకర్షణ చూపించి పని చేయించడం.
To make somebody to go somewhere or do something by offering them something
Usage: The salesperson enticed the customers to buy the products

20. EXCITE: ఒకర్ని ఒక ప్రత్యేకమైన వాదంలో స్పందించేలా చెయ్యడం.
To make somebody react in a particular way
Usage: The news exited the public.

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1. ENCOURAGE : ప్రోత్సహించడం.
To make somebody to do something by making it easier for him or her (or) making them believe that it is good thing to do.
Usage: We encourage our students to speak in English.

2. END: లక్ష్యం (లేదా) ప్రయోజనం
An aim or purpose
Usage: He is exploiting the people for his political ends.

3. ENDEAVOUR: ప్రయత్నం
To try hard to achieve something
Usage: The mountaineers will endeavour to climb the highest peak.

4. ENLARGE: పెద్దదిగా చెయ్యడం లేదా పెద్దగా అనడం
To make something bigger
Usage: They enlarged the wedding photograph

5. EXALT: ఒకరిని పై స్థాయికి తీసుకెళ్లడం.
To make somebody rise to a higher rank or position
Usage: They exalted him.

6. ESCALATE: పెరగడం
To become or make something greater worse or more serious
Usage: The quarrel between them soon escalated into a fight.

7. EXPAND: విస్తరణ.
To become greater in size, number or importance
Usage: They are planning to expand the business.

8. ENTITLE: ఒక పని చేయడానికి అనుమతివ్వడం.
To give permission to do something
Usage: He is entitled to use the office cab.

9. ENFRANCHISE: ఎన్నికల్లో ఓటు వేయడానికి హక్కు ఇవ్వడం.
To give somebody the right to vote in an election
Usage: She was enfranchised to vote in the election.

10. ENTRUST: ఒకరిని ఒక పని చేయడానికి (లేదా) ఒకరిని చూసుకోవడానికి బాధ్యత అప్పగించడం.
To make somebody responsible for doing something or take care of somebody
Usage: I entrust my son to my neighbors whenever I go out.

11. EXPRESS: వ్యక్తపరచడం
To tell about your feelings or an opinion
Usage: He expressed his respect for her

12. ENLIGHTEN: జ్ఞానోదయం చేయడం.
To give somebody information so that understand something better.
Usage: National statistics often serve to confuse more than enlighten.

13. EULOGISE: చాలా గొప్పగా మెచ్చుకోవడం
To praise someone or something very highly
Usage: The poet eulogized the great leader in his poem.

14. EXTOL: చాలా గొప్పగా మెచ్చుకోవడం.
To praise somebody or something
Usage: All extolled him as a genius.

15. EXAGGERATE: ఉన్నదాని కంటే ఎక్కువ చేసి చెప్పడం.
To make something seen better than it really is
Usage: She always exaggerates all things.

16. ECLIPSE: గ్రహణం సమయంలో చంద్రుడు సూర్యుడ్ని (లేదా) సూర్యుడు చంద్రుడిని కన్పించకుండా కప్పినట్లు చెప్పడానికి వాడతాం.
To hide the SUN or MOON and cause an eclipse
Usage: The moon eclipsed the SUN.

17. EXHAUST: అంతా అయిపోయిందని చెప్పడం
To use all of something so that none/nothing left.
Usage: We have already exhausted whatever we had.

18. ERADICATE: ఒక విషయాన్ని పూర్తిగా నిర్మూలించారని చెప్పడం.
To destroy or get rid of something completely
Usage: The government is trying its level best to eradicate polio.

19. EDIFIER: ఆధ్యాత్మిక చింతనలో శిక్షణ ఇవ్వడం
Usage: Edifiers change people's character.

20. EDUCATOR: చదువు నేర్పించేవారు
One who educates.
Usage: An educator has an important role in a student’s life

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.:: Improve your vocabulary -14 ::.
             
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1. FINISH: ముగింపుకు రావడం, ముగింపు తీసుకురావడం.
To come to an end or to bring something to an end
Usage: The movie finished around 11 A.M.

2. FALL: మొత్తంలో/ సంఖ్యలో/ బలంలో తగ్గుదల.
To decrease in amount, number or strength
Usage: The sensex fell 150 points yesterday.

3. FORM: ప్రత్యేక పద్ధతిలో లేదా ఆకారంలో వస్తువు తయారుచేయడం.
To make something in a particular way or shape
Usage: Form small balls of dough and fry.

4. FASHION: చేతులతో ప్రత్యేక ఆకారంలో ఒక వస్తువు తయారుచేయడం.
To make something in a particular shape with hands
Usage: A potter fashions the clay in to a pot.

5. FABRICATE: కట్టు కథలు అల్లడం.
To make wrong information to trick people
Usage: The criminal fabricated the whole story.

6. FORGE: మోసం చేయడానికి దొంగ పత్రాల సృష్టించడం.
To make an illegal copy of something to cheat people
Usage: Many terrorists forge passports.

7. FIX ON: ఒక వ్యక్తిని లేదా ఒక వస్తువుని ఎన్నుకోవడం.
To choose somebody or something
Usage: He has fixed on Ooty for his vacation.

8. FUDGE: స్పష్టంగా జవాబు ఇవ్వకుండా తప్పించుకోవడం.
To avoid going a clear answer.
Usage: The politicians fudge the important issues.

9. FLEE: ఇబ్బందికరమైన పరిస్థితి నుంచి తప్పించుకోవడానికి ఓ వ్యక్తిని (లేదా) ఓ ప్రదేశాన్ని విడిచిపోవడం.
To avoid a difficult situation or trouble by leaving the place or the person
Usage: The driver fled from the accident spot.

10. FLOCK: చాలామంది జనం ఒకేచోట గుంపుగా చేరడం.
To collect large number of people at a place
Usage: Hundreds of people flocked to hear the speech.

11. FADE: పాలిపోవడం.
To make or become less bright
Usage: The color of the shirt has faded.

12. FANCY: భ్రమ.
Something that you believe often wrongly
Usage: He fancied himself as the next prime minister.

13. FORMULATE: సూత్రీకరించడం.
To create or prepare something carefully
Usage: He formulated a new theory.

14. FABRICATE: మోసం, కల్పితం, తప్పుడు సమాచారం.
To invent false information in order to trick people
Usage: The thief fabricated a story to miss lead the police.

15. FEAR: భయం.
The bad feeling that you have when you are in danger
Usage: He fears death.

16. FRANCHISE: తన వస్తువుల్ని, సేవల్ని ఓ ప్రత్యేకమైన ప్రాంతంలో అమ్ముకోవడానికి అనుమతివ్వడం.
Formal permission given by a company to somebody who wants sells its goods or services in a particular area.
Usage: The Company franchised the product to him.

17. OPT: ఓ ప్రత్యేకమైన పద్ధతిని ఎంపిక చేసుకోవడం.
To choose a particular course of action
Usage: She opted for MPC in Inter

18. OPERATE: ఓ యంత్రాన్ని నియంత్రించడం లేదా వాడటం.
To use or control a machine
Usage: One needs to be skillful to operate the machine.

19. ORIGINATE: పుట్టుక, కొత్త ఆలోచన.
To create something new
Usage: The idea originated while he was travelling.

20. OBSTRUCT: పని చేయకుండా అడ్డగించడం.
To prevent someone from doing something
Usage: The tree that had fallen down obstructed the way.

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1. FORESTALL: ఒకరు ఓ పని చేద్దామనే లోపే ఇంకొకరు ఆపని చేయడం 
To Prevent something from happening or someone from doing something by doing something first
Usage: The police should forestall problems.

2. FORBID: పనిచేయకూడదని ఆదేశించడం. 
To order someone not to do something
Usage: He is forbidden from eating sweets

3. FAMINE: అతివృష్టి అనావృష్టిలతో ఏర్పడే అహార కొరత. 
Lack of food during a long period in a region
Usage: Many people died in the famine.

4. FACULTY: ఉపాధ్యాయుల సమూహాన్ని అంటారు
Teaching body in a school or college
Usage: The school has excellent faculty.

5. FECILLITATOR: తేలికగా నేర్చుకునే వాళ్ళకు సహాయం చేసేవారు. 
One who makes learning easy especially language trainer
Usage: A teacher should act as a facilitator and help the student to learn

6. GOD: దేవుడు & Goddess దేవత 
Usage: It is god who created the earth.
They decorated the goddess in Jewellery

7. GOBBLE: శబ్దం చేస్తూ త్వరగా తినడం.
Usage: He gobbles whatever was available.

8. GROW: పెద్దవారిగా మారటం. 
Usage: She has grown into a beautiful woman

9. GO FOR: ఒకదాన్ని ఎన్నుకోవడం. 
To choose something
Usage: She usually goes for traditional clothes.

10. GATHER: చుట్టూపడిఉన్న వస్తు వులను ఒకచోటకు చేర్చుట. 
To collect things that has been spread around
Usage: The mother gathered all the books from the floor.

11. GARNER: సమాచారాన్ని /మద్దతును సంపాదించడం.
To collect information, support to win elections.
Usage: The garnered support to win elections.

12. GOAL లక్ష్యం: 
Something that you hope to achieve
Usage: The Company’s goal is to double the profits this year.

13. GROW: ఒక వస్తువు పరిమాణం, సంఖ్య, బలం, నాణ్యత పెరుగుదల సూచించడం. To increase in size, number, strength, quality and etc. 
Usage: The population of India has grown,

14. GRANT: చట్టపరంగా అనుమతి ఇవ్వడం
To give somebody what they ask for especially formed or legal permission. 
Usage: The Embassy granted him the visa.

15. GLORIFY: ఎక్కువగా మెచ్చుకోవడం 
To make something seem better or more important than it really is. 
Usage: The movie glorifies the lives of the leaders.

16. GUIDE: మార్గ నిర్దేశం చేసేవాడు
One who instructs a scholar writing thesis. 
Usage: It is a fortune that I got him as my guide.

17. GIGGLE: చిలిపిగా, నెమ్మదిగా నవ్వడం 
To laugh in a silly way because you are nervous or embarrassed
Usage: Why are you giggling?

18. GRAIN: పళ్ళు ఇకిలించి నవ్వడం
To smile widely
Usage: He grained with delight when he heard the news.

19. HOTEL: భోజన, ఫలహారాలు చేసేందుకు, విశ్రాంతి తీసుకునేందుకు
అందుబాటులో ఉండే ప్రదేశం 
A building where people stay, usually for a short time, paying for their rooms and meals

20. HOSTEL: విద్యార్ధుల వసతి గృహం
A building that provides cheap accommodation and meals to students
Usage: Many students stay in hostel in the city.

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1. Place of Pilgrimage: పుణ్యక్షేత్రం
A journey to a place that is connected with something that you admire or respect
Usage: Tirupati is the important place of Pilgrimage, which welcomes over 100,000 people every day

2. Place of Worship: పూజా స్థలం.
The practice of showing respect for God for Goddess, by saying prayers, singing with others
Usage: The place of Worship gave him the spirit and truth

3. Put an End to Life: జీవితం ముగియడం (ఆత్మహత్య చేసుకోవడం).
To end one's life
Usage: She put an end to her life by consuming poison.

4. Put Out: మంటలను ఆర్పడం.
To end fire.
Usage: They have put out the fire.

5. Produce: అమ్మడం కోసం వస్తువులను పెద్ద మొత్తంలో తయారు చేయడం.
To make something especially in large quantities.
Usage: The factory produced many trucks this year

6. Procreate: పిల్లల్ని కనడం.
To make (or) produce children (or) babies
Usage: Some animals procreate during a specific time.

7. Propagate: ఓ చెట్టు నుంచి ఇంకో చెట్టుని సృష్టించడం.
To make new plant from the pass out plant.
Usage: The plants do not propagate in extreme conditions.

8. Pick and Choose: కావల్సిన / ఇష్టపడిన వస్తువులను ఎన్నుకొని తీసుకోవడం.
To choose only those things which you like or want very much.
Usage: Since the economy is down one can't pick and choose the jobs.

9. Prefer: ఉన్నవాటిల్లోంచి నచ్చిందాన్ని ఎన్నుకోవడం.
To choose something because one likes it.
Usage: He prefers cricket to badminton.

10. Pass the Buck: ఓ బాధ్యత నుంచి తప్పుకొని దాన్ని ఇంకొకరికి అప్పచెప్పడం.
To avoid a responsibility and to give it someone else
Usage: He takes responsibility about the project, so does not pass the buck until he completes this project

11. Stifling: గాలి లేక పోవడం వల్ల వేడిగా ఉండటం.
Too hot without fresh air
Usage: People were stifling in the room.

12. Purify: శుద్ది చేయడం
To remove impurities dirt etc., from something and make it pure
Usage: We purify water at home.

13. Pile On: త్వరగా సాధించడం/ త్వరగా సేకరించడం
To collect something rapidly
Usage: The team piled on the runs after the break.

14. Ply: పనిముట్టుని నైపుణ్యంతో వాడటం.
To use a tool in a skillful way
Usage: The carpenter carefully plied the saw.

15. Profit By: ఒకరికి ఉపయోగకరంగా ఉండటం.
To be useful to somebody
Usage: The poor will be profited by the new policy.

16. Pollute: శుభ్రత/నాణ్యత తగ్గడం.
To make less pure / To become less hygienic
Usage: We have polluted our environment.

17. Provoke: కోపం తెప్పించి (లేదా) రెచ్చగొట్టి చట్ట విరుద్ధమైన పనులు చేయడానికి ప్రోత్సహించడం.
To make somebody to do something violent, illegal or unpleasant by making them angry
Usage: He was provoked to act in such violent way.

18. Purpose: ఉద్దేశం / ధ్యేయం.
The reason for which something is done or created or for which something exists
Usage: The purpose of conducting weekend sessions is to get rid of mother tongue.

19. Pursue: లక్ష్యసాధనకు కొంత కాలం ప్రయత్నించడం.
To do something or try to achieve over a period of time
Usage: They are pursuing M.B.A.

20. Persevere: కష్టమైన ప్రయత్నాన్ని కొనసాగించడం.
To continue trying to do or achieve something despite difficulties
Usage: Despite the storm, the sailors persevered to reach the shore.

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1. Persist: పట్టుదలతో ప్రయత్నించడం.
To do or something despite difficulties
Usage: He persisted to find the actual truth.

2. Ponder: జాగ్రత్తగా ఆలోచించడం.
Think about something carefully.
Usage: We pondered over the matter.

3. Panic: భయాందోళన.
A sudden feeling of great fear that cannot be controlled and prevents you from thinking clearly
Usage: People panicked when they heard about the bomb blast.

4. Phobia: విపరీత భయం, అయిష్టత.
The strong fear
Usage: He has hydro-phobia.

5. Patent: ఓ వస్తువును తయారుచేయడానికి, అమ్ముకోవడానికి అనుమతి ఇవ్వడం.
An official right to be the only person to make, use or sell a product, invention a document
Usage: He has the patent to sell this product.

6. Prescribe: సూచించడం
To say what should be done or how it should be done especially medicines.
Usage: The doctor prescribed some medicines to my mother.

7. Publish: ప్రచురించడం
To make official information known to the public
Usage: The reports will be published shortly.

8. Pronounce: ఓ విషయాన్ని బహిరంగంగా ప్రజలకు చెప్పడం.
To tell something officially or publicly
Usage: She was pronounced as the winner at the competition.

9. Praise: అభినందించడం
To express your admiration for somebody or something
Usage: He praised his father whole-heartedly.

10. Persuade: ఒకరితో చక్కగా మాట్లాడి ఒప్పించడం.
To make someone do something by talking to them convincingly
Usage: They persuaded him to join them for the picnic.

11. Prevent: ఓ పని చేయకుండా నిరోధించడం.
To stop someone from doing something
Usage: We must prevent diseases.

12. Pittance: చాలా తక్కువ జీతం అని చెప్పడం.
A very small amount of money that one receives which is hardly enough to live on
Usage: He is working for a pittance.

13. Poverty: పేదరికం 
The state of being poor and lacking something.
Usage: Poverty still exists in some parts of our country.

14. Paucity: చాలా తక్కువ మొత్తం ఉందని చెప్పడం.
A small amount of something less than enough
Usage: They were unable to take any action because of a paucity of evidence.

15. Perish: వస్తువులు నాశనమయ్యాయని, మనుష్యులు చనిపోయారని చెప్పడం.
To be damaged or destroyed.
Usage: The crops perished in the heavy rains.

16. Professor: కళాశాలల్లో, విశ్వవిద్యాలయాల్లో పై స్థాయి ఉపాధ్యాయుడు.
Highest rank teacher in colleges or universities
Usage: That professor changed the lives of many students.

17. Preceptor: నేర్పించేవాడు.
One who instruct or teaches
Usage: Students depend on preceptors.

18. Pedagogue: పాఠశాలల్లో నేర్పించే ఉపాధ్యాయుడు
A schoolteacher
Usage: A pedagogue teaches pupil who generally feel that they know everything.

19. Preacher: మత బోధకుడు
A person tells about religious subjects.
Usage: The preacher helped me know the true God.

20. Sultry: చాలా ఉక్కగా, వేడిగా ఉండడం.
Too hot and uncomfortable
Usage: It is so sultry there.

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1. Red hot: లోహాలు వేడికి ఎర్రగా మారడం/ కోపం
So hot that it looks very red
Usage-1: The metal was red hot.
Usage-2: His face is red hot due to displeasure  

2. Recast: కొత్త రూపం ఇవ్వడం.
To change the actors or the role of a particular actor in a play or movie
Usage: The director will recast the main role.

3. Remodel: ఓ వస్తువు పరిమాణం (లేదా) రూపం మార్చడం.
To change the structure or shape of something
Usage: The architect remodeled the whole   shopping complex.

4. Reorganize: పునః వ్యవస్థీకరణ
To change the way in which something is organized.
 Usage: The education system was reorganized.

5. Reform: చట్టాన్ని, సంస్థని, ప్రవర్తనని సంస్కరించడం.
To change behaviour, a system, an organization, a law etc. to improve it
Usage: Many laws have been reformed after independence.

6. Reduce: వస్తువు శక్తి, పరిమాణం, సంఖ్యలో తగ్గుదల.
To decrease the size, quantity, price etc., of something.
Usage: They have reduced the number of employees in the firm.

7. Refrain: పని చేయకుండా నిరోధించడం.
 To avoid or stop oneself from doing something
Usage: She refrained from connecting on the issue.

8. Renounce: స్వచ్ఛందంగా మానేయడం / వదిలేయడం.
 To avoid something voluntarily
Usage: Gautama Buddha renounced all the worldly pleasures.

9. Rectify: సమస్యను తొలగించి సరి చేయడం.
To remove a problem from something and make it right
Usage: The mechanic rectified the fault in the car.

10. Resort to: ఒక దాన్ని సాధించడం కోసం ఒక చెడ్డదాన్ని వాడటం.
To make use of something bad to achieve something
Usage: The workers resorted to violence for their demands.

11. Regress: తక్కువ చేయడం/ తిరోగమనం 
 To make something less advanced.
Usage: The dowry system has regressed our society.

12. Resolution: ద్రుఢ నిర్ణయం (లేదా) తీర్మానం.
 A firm decision to do or not to do something
 Usage: He took a resolution to give up smoking.

13. Rack: తీవ్రంగా ఆలోచించడం.
 To think very hard for a long time
Usage: We have been racking our brains for a long time to find the answer.

14. Raise: ఒక మొత్తాన్ని లేదా స్థాయిని పెంచడం.
 To increase the amount or level of something
Usage: The management raised the salaries of the employees.

15. Restrain: ఒకరు ఒక పని చేయకుండా కట్టడి చేయడం.
To stop someone from doing something by physical force
Usage: The police had restrained the public from entering that area.

16. Restrict: పనిని స్వేచ్ఛగా చేయకుండా ఆపడం.
 To stop someone from doing something freely
 Usage: They restricted her from going out.

17. Run dry: నది పూర్తిగా ఎండిపోయి, నీటి కొరత ఉందని చెప్పడం.
 A time when river becomes completely dry.
 Usage: The River has run dry.

18. Run short: ఏదైనా తగినంత లేదని చెప్పడానికి.
Less off something
Usage: We are running short of supply from the centre.

19. Ruin: వస్తు నాశనం, పదవి, డబ్బు, జీవితం పోవడం
Something is destroyed.
Usage: The monument was ruined due to lack of care.

20. Ravage: ఓ ప్రాంతాన్ని నాశనం చేశారని చెప్పడం.
To damage something badly 
Usage: Those regions were ravaged due to communal violence.

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1. Ridicule: పరిహసించారని చెప్పడం.
To pass unkind comments to make someone or something look silly.
Usage: We must not ridicule people.

2. Supernatural being: దేవునికి / మాయకు సంబంధించినవి.
That can't be explained by the laws of Science and that seems to involve God's or magic.
Usage: Most of the people believe in supernatural beings.

3. Shrine: సంరక్షణ స్థలం, ఆలయ ప్రాంగణం  
People come to worship because it is connected with a holy person or event.
Usage: children's home is shrine to god

4. Swallow: ఆహారం మింగడం / కబళించడం
Usage: He swallowed it with a great difficulty.
India’s victory is tough to swallow for Pakistan

5. Supper: సాయంత్రం పూట తినే ఆహారం.
An evening meal
Usage: The supper will be served from 4:30 p.m. to 7 p.m. 

6. Snacks: కొద్దిగా తీసుకొనే ఆహారం.
A small meal / a small amount of food usually ate in a hurry.
Usage: We didn't even have snacks.

7. Scream: బాధ, కోపం, ఉత్సాహం లేదా భయంతో పెద్ద పెట్టున అరవడం.
To shout in a loud and high voice as you are hurt, frightened, excited, or angry.
Usage: She screamed at him.

8. Shout: గట్టిగా చెప్పడం లేదా అరవడం.
To say something in a loud voice
Usage: Why are you shouting?

9. Shriek: భయం, నొప్పి లేదా ఉత్సాహంతో గట్టిగా అరవడం.
To shout because you are frightened in pain or excited
Usage: That boy shrieked in fear.

10. Squeak: భయం లేదా ఉత్సాహంతో గట్టిగా కేకలు వేయడం.
To speak loudly in a high voice because you are nervous or excited.
Usage: The girl squeaked when the policemen caught her hand.

11. Shrill: గట్టి ఇబ్బందికరమైన శబ్దం చేయడం.
To make a loud unpleasant sound
Usage: "Do not go there" she shrilled.

12. Scorching: చాలా వేడిగా ఉండటం.
Too hot
Usage: It is scorching.

13. Sizzling: చాలా వేడిగా ఉండటం.
Too hot
Usage: It is difficult to bear the sizzling summer.

14. Sunny: సూర్యుడి నుంచి వెలుగు నేరుగా ప్రసరించడం.
 The rays of sun falling directly
Usage: It is so sunny today.

15. Stuffy: వేడిగా గాలి లేకుండా ఇబ్బందికరంగా ఉండటం.
Warm in an unpleasant way and without enough fresh air.
Usage: It was stuffy inside the conference hall.

16. Sweltering: చాలా వేడిగా ఇబ్బందికరంగా ఉండటం.
Too hot in a way that makes you feel uncomfortable.
Usage: People are sweltering in the heat.

17. Suffocating: ఊపిరాడకుండా ఉండటం.
Have or cause to have difficulty in breathing.
Usage: It is too suffocating in this room.

18. Sever: ఒకరితో బంధాన్ని, మాటలను పూర్తిగా మానివేయడం.
To completely end a relationship or communication with somebody
Usage: Both the countries have severed all their ties.

19. Stop: ముగింపు లేదా ఆపు.
To end something or make something end
Usage: The war will stop very soon.

20. Sign off: ఉత్తరాన్ని లేదా ప్రచారాన్ని ముగించడం.
To end a letter or a broadcast
Usage: He signed off the programme with a melodious song.

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1. Shift: అభిప్రాయం / దృక్పథం మారడం
To change opinions, attitudes, views about something.
Usage: His focus has shifted from poverty to education.

2. Sing a Different Tune: ఒక విషయానికి సంబంధించి మన అభిప్రాయం, దృక్పథం మారడం.
To change your opinion or attitude about something
Usage: He is singing a different tune after meeting the opposition leader.

3. Shrink: పరిమాణం తగ్గడం.
To decrease the size of clothes after washing them or decrease the size of something
Usage: My new dress has shrunk.

4. Subside: భావోద్వేగాలు తగ్గడం, నొప్పి తగ్గడం లేదా పరిమాణం తగ్గడం.
To decrease the emotions, pain, size of something or someone
Usage: The pain subsided after sometime.

5. Scale down: వస్తువు శక్తి, పరిమాణం, సంఖ్యలో తగ్గుదల.
To decrease the number, size, extent etc. of something.
Usage: They are scaling down the course next year.

6. Shorten: వస్తు సంఖ్య తగ్గడం.
To decrease the size or length of something
Usage: Smoking may shorten the life span.

7. Shun: వ్యక్తికి లేదా వస్తువుకు దూరంగా ఉండటం.
To avoid somebody or something
Usage: The family shunned him for his behaviour.

8. Side step: ప్రశ్నకు సమాధానం దాటవేయడం లేదా సమస్యని పరిష్కరించకుండా పక్కకు తప్పుకోవడం.
To avoid answering a question or dealing a problem
Usage: The accused tried to side step the questions.

9. Shirk: సోమరితనం కారణంగా పని చేయకుండా పక్కకి తప్పుకోవడం.
To avoid something which one should do, as one is lazy
Usage: We should not shirk from our responsibilities.

10. Steer clear of: సమస్య తలెత్తుతుందనే కారణంతో ఒక వస్తువుని లేదా వ్యక్తిని దూరంగా ఉంచడం.
To avoid something or somebody because it may cause problems
Usage: He steered clear of getting into a brawl.

11. Shy away: పని చేయకుండా తప్పించుకోవడం.
To avoid doing something because one is nervous or frightened
Usage: The media should not shy away from telling truth.

12. Skip: చేయాల్సిన పని చేయకుండా తప్పించుకోవడం.
To avoid doing something which one should do.
Usage: He skipped the important meeting.

13. Skirt: ఇబ్బందికరమైన పరిస్థితి నుంచి తప్పించుకోవడానికి మాట్లాడకుండా ఉండటం
To avoid talking about something because it is difficult or embarrassing
Usage: They skirted the issue of payment.

14. Shallow: విలువలు లేని మనిషి.
Person with no moral values
Usage: People have become shallow.

15. Shift: మురికి మరకల్ని తీసివేయడం.
To remove dirty marks
Usage: The new detergent has shifted all the marks.

16. Sack: ఉద్యోగం నుంచి తొలగించడం.
To remove somebody from the job/employment
Usage: They have sacked many employees.

17. Stock: వస్తువుని సేకరించి నిల్వ చేయడం.
To collect something to use it later
Usage: Birds stock up the food for winter.

18. Stack: ఒక పెద్ద సముదాయం లేదా కుప్ప.
To collect something until there is a large pile 
Usage: We stacked up the books on the shelf.

19. Swarm: ఒక దిక్కుగా వెళ్లే మనుషులు లేదా జంతువుల సమూహం.
A collection of people or animals moving in the same direction
Usage: The agitated workers swarmed towards the manager chamber.

20. Seize: అవకాశాన్ని త్వరగా ఉపయోగించుకోవడం.
To quickly make use of an opportunity or a chance
Usage: He seized this golden opportunity.


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 10th Class Model Papers and Weight-age for AP New Syllabus Old Pattern Exams for 2014-15

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